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The shortened footnote template {{sfn}} creates a short author-date citation in a footnote. For use with Shortened footnotes.


In the body of the article:

{{sfn | last name(s) of author(s) | year | p=page number or pp=page range or loc=other location }}

In a section for citations, usually under the heading Notes:


In the references section (or in an earlier footnote):

{{cite book or cite journal, etc | ref=harv | ... other appropriate parameters ... }}


{{citation | ... other appropriate parameters ... }} (|ref=harv is not required when using {{Citation}})

Parameters[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

Up to four authors can be given as parameters. (If there are more than 4 authors only the first 4 should be listed. See #Large numbers of authors, below.) The last parameter is the year of publication.

(All these examples have links which operate. Click on highlighted text.)


The optional parameters |p=, |pp= and |loc= can be used to indicate the location in the source. All of the Harvard citation templates use the same parameters to indicate page numbers or other locations in the text.

साँचा:Markup The optional parameter |postscript= or |ps= can be used to change the text which appears at the end of the note in the reference list. (See #Additional comments or quotes, below.) The default is a period (full stop); to remove this use {{sfn|Smith|2005|p=25|ps=}}. (See #No closing period, below.) The postscript is only effective the first time {{sfn}} is used for a particular author, year and location.

The optional parameter |ref= is used to specify the reference value that links the short citation to the full citation. This parameter is usually not necessary and it is more common to use साँचा:Tl2 or साँचा:Tl2 in the reference section. If you specify |Ref=none no hyperlink is created. Note that, if one does not want the link, it is always possible to to simply not use the template. (Not available in {{sfn}} and similar templates.)

Reference section[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

The links in the Harvard citation templates can find anchors in Citation Style 1, साँचा:Cs2 and similar templates. To make the anchor, parameter |ref=harv must be set. This is not necessary for {{citation}}, but is normally necessary for the others.


Author-date citation templates[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

There are several templates used to create in-text citations; they differ in the use and placement of parenthesis, in the separator before the page or location and in whether a terminal full stop (period) is present:

In-text templates
Templates Aliases Example
{{Harvard citation no brackets}} {{harvnb}} साँचा:Harvnb
{{Harvard citation}} {{harv}} साँचा:Harv
{{Harvard citation text}} {{harvtxt}} साँचा:Harvtxt
{{Harvcoltxt}} साँचा:Harvcoltxt
{{Harvcol}} साँचा:Harvcol
{{Harvcolnb}} साँचा:Harvcolnb
{{Harvard citations}} ({{harvs}}) साँचा:Harvs (and many other forms).
{{Shortened footnote template}} {{sfn}} Article text.[1]
  1. Smith 2006, p. 25.
{{Sfnp}} Article text.साँचा:Sfnp
{{Sfnm}} Article text.साँचा:Sfnm

Full citations can be created manually or by templates:

All of these templates have the same parameters and basic functionality. This page describes all of them except the parameters of साँचा:Tl2 and साँचा:Tl2; please see their documentation pages. Editors editing one of these templates are requested to make parallel changes to the other versions.

Applications[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

Harvard citation: {{harv}}[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

See also: साँचा:See section

Template {{harv}} creates a parenthetical reference with a link to the full citation in the references section at the bottom of the article.


Shortened footnote: {{sfn}} or {{harvnb}}[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

See also: साँचा:See section

Template {{harvnb}} inside a <ref> span can be used to create a Shortened footnotes that is linked to the full citation at the bottom of the article. Template {{sfn}} has the same effect and it also combines identical footnotes automatically.


In text attribution: {{harvtxt}}[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

See also साँचा:See section

Template {{harvtxt}} can be used to link an in-text attribution to the full citation at the bottom of the page. साँचा:Markup

Bundled citation: {{harvnb}} or {{sfnm}}[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

See also: साँचा:See section

Template {{harvnb}} can be used to bundle citations. साँचा:Tl2 also produces bundled citations.


Note that {{sfn}} is inappropriate for bundled citations; use {{harvnb}} or {{sfnm}}.

More exotic Harvard citations {{harvid}} or {{harvs}}[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

More exotic Harvard citations can be constructed using the {{harvs}} template, such as multiple papers by the same author, using both the first and last names, links to articles about the author, and others. Any kind of unusual link can also be constructed using the idiom [[#{{harvid|parameters}}|link name]].


Some articles use this idiom [[#CITEREFid | link name ]]. See notes on implementation details below.

Variations[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

Using colon format: {{harvcol}}, {{harvcolnb}}, {{harvcoltxt}}[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

Templates {{harvcol}}, {{harvcolnb}}, {{harvcoltxt}} use a colon to indicate the page number(s) or location.


Parenthesis around the year: {{sfnp}}[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

Template साँचा:Tl2 puts parenthesis around the year. Compare the two examples.


Additional comments or quotes: |ps=[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

Paramater |ps= can be used to add quotes or additional comments. Note that this effect can also be achieved using साँचा:Tl2. The postscript is only effective the first time {{sfn}} is used for a particular author, year and location.


No closing period: |ps=[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

Using |ps= in साँचा:Tl2 removes the final period. Compare the two examples. Suppressing the default period (full stop) ensures consistency with Citation style 2, as produced by {{Citation}}, which does not use a trailing period (full stop) in notes. The postscript is only effective the first time {{sfn}} is used for a particular author, year and location.


Adding a URL for the page or location[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

If a specific link to the page or section is available, a URL can be added to the location or page number. साँचा:Markup

Possible issues[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

Wikilink to citation does not work[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

If nothing happens when you click on the highlighted wikilink from a Harvard style citation to a full citation at the bottom of the page, there are several possible solutions. If:

  1. The correct citation does not appear at the bottom of the article. Solution: Find the source (it may be copied from an article on a similar subject), and check that it verifies the text. If the source can't be found, tag the citation with {{citation not found}}.
  2. The correct citation appears at the bottom of the article, and
    1. The Harvard citation uses a template (such as {{sfn}} or {{harv}}):
      1. The citation uses a template from the list at Citation Style 1:
        1. The name is spelled differently here than the citation. Solution: check the source for the correct spelling.
        2. The year is different here than the citation. Solution: check the source for the correct year.
        3. The citation template requires |ref=harv (not needed for {{citation}}, but is needed for most other Citation Style 1 templates). Solution: Add |ref=harv.
        4. The template has a |date= field and no |year= field, but the format of the |date= field is unusual. Solution: Try to fix the date. If the link still does not work, add |year= to the citation template. (It's okay if it has both.)
        5. The citation does not have an author's last name. Solution: check that |ref={{harvid}} is set correctly (see below).
      2. The citation uses a Citation Style Vancouver template. Solution: check that |harvid= is set correctly (see below).
      3. The citation uses a template that does not support |ref= (See User:Gadget850/Citation templates— anchors). Solution: An anchor can be created using {{wikicite|id={{harvid|args}}|reference={{citation}}}}.
      4. The citation does not use a template:
        1. It has no wikicode to create an anchor. Solution: If साँचा:Cite * citation templates are used liberally throughout the article, then reformat the citation with the appropriate साँचा:Cite * template and set the |ref= appropriately. Otherwise consult with local editors on the talk page about how to proceed. Either add साँचा:Cite * templates and {{harv}} templates, or remove all templates, depending on what local editors prefer. A few articles use {{wikicite}} to create an anchor as an alternative to standard templates.
        2. Uses a &lt;cite&gt; span to create an anchor. Solution: remove the cite span (these are deprecated) and proceed as with the previous.
        3. Uses {{wikicite}}. Solution: Check that |id={{harvid}} matches.
    2. If the Harvard citation uses a handwritten wikilink, such as [[#Reference-Smith2006|Smith (2006)]]
      1. The citation uses a citation template which supports |ref= (See User:Gadget850/Citation templates— anchors). Solution: Check that |ref= is set to a matching id.
      2. Otherwise, check that the reference has {{wikicite|ref=id|reference=citation}} with a matching id.

Templates that have broken wikilinks using these templates are added to the category Category:All articles with broken links to citations.

More than one work in a year[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

For authors who have published more than one work in the same year, the standard way to differentiate such works is to put a lowercase letter after the year (e.g. place |year=2006a and |year=2006b in the citation templates and use {{sfn|Smith|2006a}} and {{sfn|Smith|2006b}}in the article body).


Large numbers of authors[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

Only the first four authors are required by the template. Listing more is not supported. It also possible to use the |ref={{harvid}} in the citation template, which allows a more concise citation in the article text.


No author name in citation template[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

Some sources do not have a single author with a last name, such as a magazine article or a report from a government institution. There is no consensus (in Wikiversity or among citation styles) about how to format author-date citations to works that do not have a specific author. Several choices are:

  1. For a newspaper or periodical you may use the name of the paper and the date.
  2. For a publication by an institution, use either:
    1. The initials of the institution
    2. The name of the institution
  3. Alternatively, some style guides recommend using the title of the article.
  4. Other style guides recommend using "Anonymous" or "Anon."

An article should adopt one of these styles consistently. Using |ref={{harvid}} in the citation template can handle these cases.


Citation has |date= and no |year=[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

Either the |year= or |date= of a citation template can be matched – the template logic can extract the year from a full date. If the date parameter is not a full date, then the extraction will fail. If the link does not seem to work, it also possible to set both |date= and |year= parameters. The template will display the date and use the year for the anchor. If only the year is known the |year= field must be used in the citation for the link to work correctly (i.e. |date=2005 may not work correctly). These two examples show a year being successfully extracted from full date.


Citation template does not support |ref=harv[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

The Citation Style Vancouver family of templates use parameter |ref=harvid to create an anchor for the Harvard citation templates. This must be set to a concatenation of the parameters passed to the Harvard citation template.


Citation format does not support anchors: {{wikicite}}[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

In a few very rare cases, it may be impossible for the citation templates to create an anchor. Either (1) the citation is formatted with a template that does not support the |ref= parameter (such as {{cite report}}) or (2) the source can't be described using our citation templates at all. In these cases, it is possible to use {{wikicite}} to make the anchor. (As of November 2010, there are only approximately 100 articles that require this technique.) It is also possible that (3) local editors would prefer not to use citation templates. In this case, it is important to discuss what the local editors would like to do about the bad links. It is always possible to simply remove {{harv}} or {{sfn}}.


It is also possible to use <cite> to achieve the same effect, but this may not be compatible with HTML 5.

Recommended style[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

The recommended Harvard referencing style potentially uses all four templates. Each automatically generates a hypertext link based on the name(s) and date. Here is an example साँचा:Markup

In short:

  1. For a single work with no author in the text (the most common case), use {{Harv}}.
  2. For a single work with the author named in the text, use {{Harvtxt}}.
  3. For multiple works at the same point, use explicit parentheses and {{Harvnb}} separated by semicolons.
  4. For anything more complicated use {{Harvs}}.

Implementation notes[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

These templates use two elements: a wikilink in the body of the article, and an anchor in the reference section of the article. Clicking on the wikilink repositions the page at the anchor.

Citation template anchor[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

साँचा:See also

The most common citation templates are Citation Style 1 or साँचा:Cs2. If |ref=harv is set, then {{Citation/core}} creates an anchor <a name="CITEREF"> followed by the concatenation of the following parameters:

  • last or last1 or surname or surname1 or author or author1 or authors,
  • last2 or surname2 or author2,
  • last3 or surname3 or author3,
  • last4 or surname4 or author4,
  • editor-last or editor-surname or editor1-last or editor1-surname or editor or editors,
  • editor2-last or editor2-surname,
  • editor3-last or editor3-surname,
  • editor4-last or editor4-surname,
  • year.

Template {{Citation}} sets |ref=harv as the default.

This covers the most common templates. Information about all the templates is available at User:Gadget850/Citation templates— anchors.

Please note that the above list does not include the coauthor parameter, which is ignored in generating the citation's CITEREF anchor. It is recommended that, when used with the harv family templates, citation templates always use the numbered last parameters instead of coauthor so that a more accurate CITEREF anchor may be generated. If coauthor is used, it will not be possible to generate a Harvard citation that displays the authors' names correctly and that generates a link to the correct CITEREF anchor.

Use of the date parameter in place of the year parameter in citation templates is preferred when full dates are known. The date parameter should not be used to simply encode a year, as this can fail to generate a viable #CITEREF link.

Harvard citation wikilink[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

The Harvard citation templates create a wikilink to the anchor. For example {{Harv|Smith|2006|p=25}} produces the link #CITEREFSmith2006 and {{Citation|last=Smith|first=John|date=27 January 2006|title=My Life}} produces the anchor CITEREFSmith2006.

Using CITEREF directly[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

A few articles create a custom ID using CITEREF, either in place of the Harvard citation template (e.g. [[#CITEREFSmith2006|(2006)]]) or as a value for |ref= in the citation template. साँचा:Refname rules


Where cite_name is a name such as the publisher.

{{sfn}}'s ref name[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

Template {{sfn}} creates a named footnote, so that identical footnotes are combined automatically. The footnote name begins with FOOTNOTE followed by a concatenation of the arguments to {{sfn}}. E.g.: this template call {{sfn|Smith|2006|p=26}} should have exactly the same functionality as <ref name="FOOTNOTESmith200626">{{Harvnb}}</ref> which, in turn, has the same functionality as <ref name="FOOTNOTESmith200626">>[[#CITEREFSmith2006|Smith (2006)]], p. 26</ref>

The call to {{harvnb}} has been subst'ed for quicker load times.

Notes[स्रोत सम्पादित करें]

साँचा:Wikiversity referencing